Alphonse Mucha (1860 - 1939)


Alphonse Mucha is best known as the artist who gave popular form to the impassioned decadence of the Parisian Belle Époque. With gravity defying whorls, and sinuous feminine figures, he encapsulated the era’s bohemian vitality in a remarkable range of media from advertising posters and decorative ensembles to textile and jewelry designs. By 1900, his style had become that of a whole generation and indissolubly synonymous with the decorative aesthetic transforming streets in Paris and around the world at the twilight of the nineteenth century— the Art Nouveau.


Enduring fascination with this artist has recently prompted scholars to investigate the scope of his oeuvre and the range of his influences. Born during the Czech National Revival in the small town of IvanĨice, under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Mucha spent his formative years painting set designs for Vienna’s Ring Theater before entering the renowned Munich Academy of Arts. In 1888, he moved to Paris with the intention of becoming an academic painter in the tradition of the Central and Eastern European artists he so admired, enrolling at the Académie Julien where he studied under illustrious academicians Joseph Lefébvre and Jean-Paul Laurens. However, it was his virtuoso talents as a graphic artist for magazines and fashion journals that secured his living and which he often traded for meals at Madame Charlotte’s Crémerie, a café popular with avant-garde artists, writers, actors, and composers. Becoming swiftly immersed in the artistic milieu of the Latin Quarter, in 1894 he was commissioned to design a poster for celebrity actress Sarah Bernhardt’s performance of Gismonda at the Théâtre de la Renaissance. An instant sensation when it appeared in January, his design combined references to patterning in Czech Baroque churches, Byzantine icons, flattened forms of Japanese woodblock prints, and the “particular, organic magic” of Bernhardt’s costume swaying on the stage. The popularity of this design launched Mucha into celebrity status himself.


By the close of the century, Mucha held contracts with the most exclusive printers in France and had become one of the most celebrated decorative artists of his generation. “Le style Mucha”had become shorthand for the organic, romantically nostalgic Art Nouveau aesthetic that had redefined French decorative arts and launched an international style with variants in every European country. In 1900, Mucha was awarded both the French Legion of Honor and the title of Austrian Knight of the Royal Order of Franz Joseph I in recognition of his design for the Bosnia-Herzegovina pavilion at the 1900 Paris Universal Exposition. For this contribution he blended Moravian folk arts, Byzantine iconography, French decoration, and painting techniques from the theatre to create a spectacularly celebrated decorative synthesis reflective of his own eclectic influences, and modernity tout court.  


In 1910, Mucha returned to Bohemia where he embarked upon his final project, The Slav Epic, a 20-piece narrative cycle recounting the mythology and history of the Slavic people which took nearly two decades to complete. Though divergent in its style and subject matter from his more well-remembered works from the 1890s, Mucha confirmed his commitment to the transformative powers of the arts in the development of a unifying identity when he described the goal of his art. He recounted, “the purpose was never to destroy but always to create, to construct bridges because we must live in the hope that humankind will draw together and that the better we understand each other, the easier this will become.”